Dry anaerobic composting: solution for waste treatment in rural areas
VietNamNet Bridge - Collecting and treating waste in rural areas is a difficult task for local authorities, but dry anaerobic composting model may prove to be a good solution.
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In many villages and communes, there is still no agency or company specializing in collecting and treating waste. The 2014 national environment report showed that periodic waste collection is implemented in about 60 percent of villages and communes, while self-managed waste collection units exist in the remaining 40 percent.

It was estimated that only 40-55 percent of waste in rural areas can be collected, while the remaining is left everywhere in public places.

In some localities, waste is dumped at landfills in a way which cannot meet technical and hygienic requirements. In other localities, the composting method is used. However, both methods cannot be applied on a large scale in rural areas.

In 2014, the General Director of Environment handed over the work of treating waste to Hoi Ninh commune of Kim Son in Ninh Binh province and transferred the dry anaerobic composting technology. 
Collecting and treating waste in rural areas is a difficult task for local authorities, but dry anaerobic composting model may prove to be a good solution.

Since then, the work has been running well and bringing high socio-economic development to the locality. It does not cause bad odor, emissions and leachate.  

The process of treating solid waste in Hoi Ninh comprises some steps, including preliminary classification of waste, dumping garbage and composting waste to produce organic humus. 

Waste is classified into organic and inorganic. Inorganic waste is put into specific bags before it is placed into trucks to be carried away for treatment.

Rubbish is collected from residential quarters and gathered twice a week (Thursday and Sunday) at the garbage classification and composting houses. 

The waste is kept there for one week before it is treated as programmed. Bioproducts are sprayed every day to deodorize and prevent flies and mosquitoes. 

Before garbage is composted, it will be preliminarily treated. The garbage rich in organic substances will be mixed with bioproducts at certain ratios.

The anaerobic composting process is complicated which involved hundreds of reactions and intermediate product categories. However, in organic garbage treatment, the composting is considered a biochemical stabilization process of organic substances to create humus under tight control to create an optimum environment (temperature of 40-55oC and humidity of 50-52 percent).

During the composting process, heat is generated thanks to the oxidation of rotting materials. Lactobacillus and saccharomyces used during the process for resolution of organic compounds, thereby shortening the incubation period to about 30 days.

With the success of domestic garbage treatment complex, scientists believe that the model can be applied on a large scale in Vietnam’s conditions.


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